History of Calicut
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The History of Calicut:
 
Calicut, is the most important coastal city of Malabar the north region of state of Kerala. It was a leading trading centre for spices on the West Coast of India during the medieval period. Ruled by the Zamorin dynasty, Calicut found a place in World History with the discovery of sea route to India in 1498 by the Portuguese navigator Vasco Da Gama. He landed at Kappad a coastal fishing village and history was changed with the political scanario of India ultimately ending with it's colonization by the British. It remained under the Madras Presidency till the formation of Kerala in 1956 after independence. 

 During the Sangam age, the Calicut District formed part of the Chera Empire. It played a leading part in fostering trade relations between Kerala and outside world. Tondi, the present Kadalundi as per scholars, was one of the most flourishing seaports of Kerala that time. Again nothing is known in the post-sangam age which is considered to be the Dark Age in South India's history. In the 9th century, Calicut became a part of the Second Chera Empire. The Chera's also known as Perumals, ruled the territory till 1122 AD. With the fall of Cheras, the kingdom was divided into many independent districts called 'Nadus' such as Ernad and Polanad. Originally Calicut area was under the Porlarthris, rulers of Poland. It became an important town in 13th century with the conquest of Polanad by the King of Ernad.

The Udaiyavar of Ernad, whose headquarters was at Nediyiruppu wanted an outlet to the sea and after fighting with the Polatthiri King for 48 long years conquered the area around Ponniankara and build a fort at a place called Velapuram. Thus the city of Calicut came into existence sometime in the 13th Century AD. With the accession of Calicut, the status of Nediyirippu increased and he come to known as Swami Nambiyathiri Thirumulpad, which gradually became Samuri or Samuthiri over the years. The Europeans called him Zamorin. The place surrounded by the fort was known as Koyil (palace) Kotta (fort) and hence the name of the place became Kozhikode. Foreigners called it by different names, for Arabs it was Kalikat, for Chinese it was Kalifo while the city is known to outside world by its European name - Calicut. Interestingly, the name Calicut is derived from 'calico,' the fine variety of hand-woven cotton cloth said to have originated from this place, which was then an important manufacture. Kozhikode passed to British rule in 1792.

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Economy